HCLE Spring 2017 Progress Report

Welcome to the spring quarter of 2017 HCLE progress report. We share many of these news items via our outlets (wiki, blog, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn – and now, reddit, too) and collect them here for your and our convenience.

Our staff of 1.4 FTEs, volunteers and outside collaborators reached the following milestones in the winter (April through June) of 2017.

 

Fundraising

  • News release of Liza Loop’s GeekFest Berlin 2016 presentation

Catalog

  • Improved quantity and quality of images displayed in image gallery tool

Operations

  • Salesforce implementation being customized by a large crew of volunteers

Exhibits

  • Lobby/Proof-of-Concept work continues

 

Please pass our news along, especially if you know someone else who will want to contribute money, know-how, artifacts, stories, or connections. Even by glancing at what we’ve done, you’re helping make HCLE happen as you pass along the story. Thank you.

 

  • Fundraising

Salesforce was used to send out two news releases to followers and potential funders about:

  • a series of videos excerpted from Liza Loop’s presentation at GeekFest Berlin 2016
  • a series of videos excerpted from the Leuphana/LO*OP Center Oral History Workshop held last year at Luneberg, Germany.

These were two of the main steps in our fundraising strategy:

  • Establish an awareness of our background and infrastructure
    • Release Make Vs Buy report – done
    • Release Leuphana/LO*OP oral history videos – done
    • Release Liza Loop’s GeekFest excerpts – done
  • Field responses – in progress
    • If responses don’t generate enough of a response
      • Consider Kickstarter campaign
      • Reinvigorate Vision Club

We also continue to review grant opportunities. The process will benefit from the boilerplate narratives we created for previous applications.

  • Collection

Phil Tymon assisted Liza Loop in the organizing and digitizing of the Collection.

  • Catalog

Anna Narbutovskih created a presentation tool (the Interim Collections Site) that allows images in the Catalog to be readily displayed as a gallery for quicker review and comparison. The intent is to make it easier to check for duplications, and to verify proper import from the official repository, temporary storage locations, and the Catalog. The Interim Site also helps demonstrate the vision of the Virtual Museum. (Link available upon request. It isn’t ready for general public visitors, yet.)

Anna also modified the Catalog Maintenance System to repurpose unused fields.

  • People/Volunteers

VolunteerMatch.org was used to find several candidate Salesforce volunteers. The response has been enthusiastic.

A volunteer offered to investigate license management issues.

  • Outreach

Videos from last year’s Oral History Workshop (LLOHW) were made available online.

Blog posts published:

Social Media Traffic Report

1/1/2014 12/30/2015 12/31/2016 6/30/2017
Facebook 59 104 171 176
Twitter 67 408 493 507
WordPress 18 49 50 52
Wikispaces 12 62 69 70

 

  • Wiki

The HCLE wiki continues to act as a communications center and as a digital loading dock.

Chuck Morrissey joined the wiki.

  • Exhibits

Anna Narbutovskih is creating a Proof of Concept site (aka Collections Viewer). A few select artifacts will be presented and displayed so visitors, followers, and prospective funders can better understand our goal, a virtual museum of the History of Computing in Learning and Education.

  • Operations

Thanks to a team of volunteers, our Salesforce account is being customized for our needs. One of their primary goals is the establishment of documented processes that will ease and standardize Salesforce processes that will be necessary because of volunteer turnover. The database is being adjusted to reflect the differences between Salesforce and our previous database, CiviCRM. We are training ourselves in its use, and using the news releases as training opportunities.

 

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Computer Literacy is not just coding

by Liza Loop

Does everyone need to know how to program a computer? This is a question we have been addressing at LO*OP Center since its inception in 1975. My answer has always been a strong “yes and no”. Yes, everyone needs to understand enough about how a computer is programmed to believe the old saying “garbage in – garbage out”. The easiest way to get this knowledge into an individual’s belief system is to give him or her the experience of writing a very simple program that puts a piece of patently inaccurate information into a computer and delivers it to anyone who look at the screen or printout. Will everyone need to write computer programs to hold down a job, raise a family or participate in civic life? No. In many cases writing code is a low-level skill within the computer industry. Today there may be strong demand for coders but in the long run coding is a dead-end skill if not accompanied by design, analytical and/or management abilities.

The computer literacy debate continues to rage even after more than 40 years. A recent article is Education week, “Teaching Computer Science Is Great, But It’s Not Enough”

It recapitulates my own point of view that our emphasis should be on understanding the impact of computing on society. The proponents of the international movement, Hour of Code, emphasize learning to program as the most important place to start. I worry that participants in this project who decide that coding is not their cup of tea will lose all interest in the field before they get the real message:

we must teach children not just to think about how to design and program a particular technology, but to consider its potential role and impact on society – Sullivan & Denner

For a contemporary look at the Computer Literacy Debate you might want to follow Computing Education Blog by computer science professor Mark Guzdial. For an historical perspective check out HCLE’s  “exhibit-in-progress”. And don’t hesitate to add your own point of view here or on our Facebook or LinkedIn pages.

 

Exploring Designs for Teaching – Howard Rheingold on Counterculture + Social Media = Edupunk Pedagogy

On June 7th, 2016 we held an Oral History Workshop – How Education Made Computers Personal at Leuphana University (Luneberg, Germany) and online. The workshop was a collaboration between HCLE’s parent organization, LO*OP Center, and Leuphana University to capture more of that history and make it available to modern researchers.

Howard Rheingold (technology innovator, inventor of the term “virtual community”, editor of The Whole Earth Review, and participant in The Well) spoke on Counterculture,  Social Media, and Edupunk Pedagogy.

The history of how computing changed education and learning, and how learning and education changed computing is more than the story of hardware introductions and institutional initiatives. As, Lee Felsenstein, observed;

“the 60s – 70s resonated with the counterculture of a search for personal control,
even through technology.”

And, as the motto of the People’s Computer Company stated;

“Computers are mostly used against people instead of for people,
used to control people instead of to free them.
Time to change all that…”

Much of the early EdTech work was dedicated to applying computers and computing to education and learning; and was done by people whose work challenged conventional institutions: innovators, educators, visionaries, and revolutionaries. Some of the work was recorded. But, much of their work wasn’t recorded because it was easier to ask for forgiveness than permission, undocumented was safer than documented. Now is a good time to refresh our memories to make sure the information is preserved, made available to researchers, and archived.

There is an urgency to record as many of these oral histories as possible. The memories are perishable. The artifacts and documentation are easy for subsequent generations to dismiss without the right perspective. We are endeavoring to record those histories through the workshop, but also through a crowd campaign so many more voices can be heard. Howard, Liza, and Lee are as well known as many other EdTech pioneers; but there are equally useful stories to be heard from elementary school teachers, hobbyists, and self-taught students. If you have a story, pass it along. If you want to read those stories, visit the HCLE wiki (our digital loading dock while we built our virtual museum.) There are more stories to tell and hear. Thanks for participating.

For more of our videos from this and other presentations, visit our YouTube channel (HCLEMuseum).

Exploring Designs for Teaching – Lee Felsenstein on Community Memory, Free Speech and Computing

On June 7th, 2016 we held an Oral History Workshop – How Education Made Computers Personal at Leuphana University (Luneberg, Germany) and online. The workshop was a collaboration between HCLE’s parent organization, LO*OP Center, and Leuphana University to capture more of that history and make it available to modern researchers.

The history of how computing changed education and learning, and how learning and education changed computing is more than the story of hardware introductions and institutional initiatives. As, Lee Felsenstein, observed;

“the 60s – 70s resonated with the counterculture of a search for personal control,
even through technology.”

And, as the motto of the People’s Computer Company stated;

“Computers are mostly used against people instead of for people,
used to control people instead of to free them.
Time to change all that…”

Lee Felsenstein (host of the Homebrew Computer Club and the designer of the Osbourne-1) made a presentation about the Tom Swift Terminal, Applied Conviviality, and…

Much of the early EdTech work was dedicated to applying computers and computing to education and learning; and was done by people whose work challenged conventional institutions: innovators, educators, visionaries, and revolutionaries. Some of the work was recorded. But, much of their work wasn’t recorded because it was easier to ask for forgiveness than permission, undocumented was safer than documented. Now is a good time to refresh our memories to make sure the information is preserved, made available to researchers, and archived.

There is an urgency to record as many of these oral histories as possible. The memories are perishable. The artifacts and documentation are easy for subsequent generations to dismiss without the right perspective. We are endeavoring to record those histories through the workshop, but also through a crowd campaign so many more voices can be heard. The presenters are as well known as many other EdTech pioneers; but there are equally useful stories to be heard from elementary school teachers, hobbyists, and self-taught students. If you have a story, pass it along. If you want to read those stories, visit the HCLE wiki (our digital loading dock while we built our virtual museum.) There are more stories to tell and hear. Thanks for participating.

 

For more of our videos from this and other presentations, visit our YouTube channel (HCLEMuseum).

Apple in April at the Living Computer Museum

What was it like to be at the Apple in April event at the Living Computer Museum on Wednesday, April 12th? I’m sure the experience was different for each of us but I can tell you how it was for me.

First came getting there at all. I didn’t know about the meeting until a few days before (Monday, April 10) when HCLE consultant, Tom Trimbath, sent me a copy of a message he had received from Living Computer Museum + Labs marketing coordinator, Lauren Bayer. Tom keeps up on social media while I am sort of a recluse so I really appreciated his heads up.

Lauren’s note was inviting Tom to visit Living Computer’s new exhibit. It read:

“Continuing the momentum, we’re excited to share that LCM+L will be hosting a new, permanent exhibit dedicated to the to the first two decades of Apple! This will include three original Apple I computers, Apple’s first-ever product, including the only operable Apple I in existence available for use by the public and a unique demonstration model that was housed in Steve Jobs’ office until he first left Apple in 1985.
The Apple Exhibit will open to the public on Friday, April 14. We appreciate your support in helping us spread the word within our community. In addition to a few images available for sharing on social channels or in a newsletter, we also crafted sample posts to leverage for your social media channels.
  • Our partner @LivingComputers will open a new exhibit dedicated to the first two decades of Apple Computers on April 14! #ComeInGeekOut
  • Get hands on with the only operable Apple 1 @LivingComputers Apple Exhibit, which opens to the public on April 14! #ComeInGeekOut
  • From a garage start-up to a global leader in computer technology, the @LivingComputers Museum + Labs is opening a new exhibit dedicated to the first two decades of Apple on April 14. Visitors can interact with the only operable Apple 1 available to the public, along with other computers that helped spark Apple’s growth.”

Hmmm…LO*OP Center owns the first-ever Apple 1 off the assembly line and I had visited Living Computers two years ago. Somebody there knew about our machine but staff had changed. I wondered if they were interested in our Apple I so I telephoned Lauren.  She was exceedingly cordial and promised to ask around the organization. I later heard that my call had caused quite a stir.  Within hours an email arrived from Executive Director, Lath Carlson, with an invitation to Wednesday’s invitation-only party. I was thrilled. I didn’t pay any attention to who was going to be there but I wanted in. Luckily I didn’t have any pressing appointments to keep me from hopping on a plane to Seattle and my dog sitter was available!

By Tuesday afternoon I was ready to go and I began worrying about what to wear – evening attire? Cocktails? Business casual? Jeans? Then I realized this was Homebrew. I’ve known some of these people since I was in my 20’s and I’m now over 70. It doesn’t matter what I wear.  I decided to relax and have fun.

Meeting Old Favorites. There were only a few minutes between checking into the hotel and catching our ride to the Museum. Standing in the lobby were magazine editors David Ahl of Recreational Computing and Tom Hogan of Infoworld, neither of whom I had met in the early days of reading what they wrote, but it’s not hard to identify aging geeks swapping stories. Four more new faces were in the limousine that picked us up. Museum staff welcomed us on the first floor. I glanced over the badges still waiting on the front desk. Oh, nice crowd! Haven’t seen him/her in quite a while.

It was hard to tear myself away from the exhibits that have been installed since my previous visit and head upstairs to the party proper. Mike Willegal of the Apple I Registry sought me out, introduced himself and asked for a photo of the jumpers on our Apple I. There was Jim Warren from the West Coast Computer Faire, People’s Computer Company and many of my other old haunts. I hadn’t seen Gordon French from Homebrew since the reunion at the Computer History Museum in 2013. I’ve been working with Lee Felsenstein (designer of the Osbourne 1) recently so we were already up to date on our goings on but  it has been perhaps 10 years since I’ve had a chance to chat with Len Shustak, co-founder and Chairman of the Board of the Computer History Museum in Mt. View, California.

I’m actually not a very technical person and I remember struggling to hook up Apples, Pets and Radio Shacks to the Nestar network that Len and Harry Saal put together in the early 1980s. In those days, school kids who wanted to swap computer games really had to learn a lot about operating systems and hardware at a level way beyond scripting with a drag-and-drop interface. Many of the conversations I listened in on at this party were recaps of the hardware and software repartee around personal computers that has now been going on for more than 50 years.

Hobnobbing with the Living Computer Museum Staff. While visiting with the computer aficianados of now and then was pleasant I found I had more to talk about with the young and enthusiastic educators and curators who comprise the staff of this unique museum. I slipped out of the party to chat with Nina Arens, education coordinator, about how to engage kids in coding activities and with Cynde Moya, collections manager and several others. I went back the next day for more and hope this is just one episode in a long, fruitful collaboration.

Reflecting on the Experience. I won’t bore you with more name dropping but there were lots of other old acquaintances to say hello to. I was honored to be in the company of these pioneers of the computer industry but I was also aware that my own trajectory has always been a tangent to theirs. My passion is how people learn and how we can facilitate that learning more effectively, not bits, bytes, electrons and gates. I’m fascinated by how people think, especially people who think differently from the way I do. I love watching them solve problems but I don’t have much to say to them. It was fun to observe the renewal of long-term friendships and to hear the exchange of stories, of appreciation and of genuine concern. At the same time I realized that I did not form firm connections with those who were so instrumental to my career. I felt welcomed but still an outsider. Maybe it’s that reclusive aspect of my personality or maybe I’m just so oppositional that I’m always heading upstream when everyone else is floating down with the current. That’s what I was thinking about when I looked up and saw that the group picture was being taken from the side of the crowd where I was standing. I had thought I was in the back and instead I ended up in the front, near Paul Allen, co-founder of MicroSoft and the man behind this wonderful museum — whom I had not even met.

Thank you, Paul, for hosting such an interesting party. Next time I’ll make a point of saying hello.

Apple Group with Labels V3
photo courtesy of Living Computers Museum + Labs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exploring Designs for Teaching – Liza Loop on Distance, Synchronicity, Control

On June 7th, 2016 we held an Oral History Workshop – How Education Made Computers Personal at Leuphana University (Luneberg, Germany) and online. The workshop was a collaboration between HCLE’s parent organization, LO*OP Center, and Leuphana University to capture more of that history and make it available to modern researchers.

Liza Loop’s presentation, Distance, Synchronicity, Control: Exploring Designs for Teaching About and Through Computers, was inspired by the work of Stuart Cooney, Seymour Papert, and LOGO. Asynchronous teaching is very old. Paintings on cave walls, words in books, and files in computers are all stored instructions that control and pass information to later learners. EdTech has been with us for a long time.

The details of the presentations are too much to relay here; which is why we made a few videos of the presentations available and want to focus on one here.

The nature of the collaboration is a good example of creating a bridge between generations. Liza Loop is the founder of LO*OP Center, the co-creator of the event; and brought the first Apple 1 into schools, opened a public access meeting place for computing, and helped write user’s manuals for the Atari 400 and 800 computers. She lived the history, and knows others who also lived it. The other co-creator was Jerry Herberg, a doctoral candidate at Leuphana working on how computers influenced learning. He is studying the history, and finding others who are also eager to study the history; especially, because they realize the opportunity to meet the pioneers is becoming increasingly difficult. This oral history workshop was yet another step in passing along history. There are many more stories to tell and record and study.

The history of how computing changed education and learning, and how learning and education changed computing is more than the story of hardware introductions and institutional initiatives. As one of the speakers, Lee Felsenstein, observed;

“the 60s – 70s resonated with the counterculture of a search for personal control,
even through technology.”

And, as the motto of the People’s Computer Company stated;

“Computers are mostly used against people instead of for people,
used to control people instead of to free them.
Time to change all that…”

Much of the early EdTech work was dedicated to applying computers and computing to education and learning; and was done by people whose work challenged conventional institutions: innovators, educators, visionaries, and revolutionaries. Some of the work was recorded. But, much of their work wasn’t recorded because it was easier to ask for forgiveness than permission, undocumented was safer than documented. Now is a good time to refresh our memories to make sure the information is preserved, made available to researchers, and archived.

There is an urgency to record as many of these oral histories as possible. The memories are perishable. The artifacts and documentation are easy for subsequent generations to dismiss without the right perspective. We are endeavoring to record those histories through the workshop, but also through a crowd campaign so many more voices can be heard. Howard, Liza, and Lee are as well known as many other EdTech pioneers; but there are equally useful stories to be heard from elementary school teachers, hobbyists, and self-taught students. If you have a story, pass it along. If you want to read those stories, visit the HCLE wiki (our digital loading dock while we built our virtual museum.) There are more stories to tell and hear. Thanks for participating.

HCLE Winter 2017 Progress Report

Welcome to the winter quarter of 2017 HCLE report. We share many of these news items via our outlets (wiki, blog, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn) and collect them here for your and our convenience.

Our staff of 1.4 FTEs, volunteers and outside collaborators reached the following milestones in the winter (January through March) of 2017.

 

Fundraising

  • A news release was prepared for Liza Loop’s GeekFest Berlin 2016 presentation

Catalog

  • A presentation tool is being developed to aid image management

Collection

  • Staff was added to the task of organizing the Collection

Outreach

  • Liza Loop attended the Personal Digital Archiving 2017 conference

Operations

  • A Salesforce account was established and is being customized to HCLE’s needs

Exhibits

  • Lobby/Proof-of-Concept work continues

 

 

Please pass our news along, especially if you know someone else who will want to contribute money, know-how, artifacts, stories, or connections. Even by glancing at what we’ve done, you’re helping make HCLE happen as you pass along the story. Thank you.

  • Fundraising

A draft news release was prepared to inform followers and potential funders about a series of videos excerpted from Liza Loop’s presentation at GeekFest Berlin 2016. The organizers provided a high-resolution version of the video from which we extracted five excerpts that highlight different aspects of HCLE and its mission. (See the list in the Outreach section below.)

Thanks to some preliminary work by an outside contractor, HCLE now has a Salesforce account and database. We are training ourselves in its use, and using the news release as a training opportunity.

  • Collection

Phil Tymon is assisting Liza Loop in the organizing and digitizing of the Collection.

  • Catalog

Anna Narbutovskih is creating a presentation tool (the Interim Collections Site) that will allow images in the Catalog to be readily displayed as a gallery for quicker review and comparison. The intent is to make it easier to check for duplications, and to verify proper import from the official repository, temporary storage locations, and the Catalog.

Stan Crump is modifying the Catalog Maintenance System to repurpose one of the unused fields.

Phil Tymon is assisting Liza Loop in the cataloging of the Collection.

  • People/Volunteers

Our current team of volunteers and consultants continue to help with specific issues with the Catalog Maintenance System and miscellaneous system administration tasks.

We are pleased to introduce new volunteers and enthusiasts that have experience in the history of computing in learning and education: Chuck Morrissey, Marie Hicks.

VolunteerMatch.org was used to find several candidate Salesforce volunteers.

  • Outreach

GeekFest Berlin 2016 made Liza Loop’s video available online and also provided a copy so we may create more succinct excerpts. The editing has begun on five topics.

Liza Loop finished the quarter by attending the Personal Digital Archiving 2017 conference held by Stanford University Libraries from March 29-31, 2017.

Blog posts published:

Social Media Traffic Report

      • Twitter – Facebook ‘Following’ lists reconciled
1/1/2014 12/30/2015 12/31/2016 4/1/2017
Facebook 59 104 171 175
Twitter 67 408 493 490
WordPress 18 49 50 50
Wikispaces 12 62 69 70
  • Wiki

The HCLE wiki continues to act as a communications center and as a digital loading dock.

Chuck Morrissey joined the wiki.

  • Exhibits

Anna Narbutovskih is creating a Proof of Concept site (aka Collections Viewer). A few select artifacts will be presented and displayed so visitors, followers, and prospective funders can better understand our goal, a virtual museum of the History of Computing in Learning and Education.

Andy Molnar volunteered to highlight publications, promote existing interviews, conduct a Future Flashback interview, and work on exhibits of NSF’s impact and the military origins of technology in education.

  • Operations

The year was kicked off with a review of the program plan. As usual, the greatest variables that affect the timeline are funding and staffing.

A draft Design Document was produced to better communicate the goals, operations, restrictions, and experiences expected from the virtual museum. The primary audience is anyone involved in developing the software and web sites.

A trial contractor relationship ended with the positive consequence of establishing a Salesforce account for HCLE that is populated with our CiviCRM data. The account is being customized for our needs. The database is being adjusted to reflect the differences between Salesforce and our previous database, CiviCRM. We are training ourselves in its use, and using the news release as a training opportunity.

  • admin

HCLE’s complete collection of documents on GoogleDocs was ported to the HCLE Hostgator account as a backup.

Moving Electrons Instead of People

“You can’t learn to swim on a computer.” Liza Loop

Distance learning was greatly enabled by the technology that made it easier to move electrons than people. Originally, that meant people in remote locations could access far more educational resources. Now, everyone is expected to engage in distance learning whether from a classroom or to understand a smartphone’s upgrade. It is almost seen as a panacea by some. In this presentation made at GeekFest Berlin 2016, Liza points out that;

“There are many things we can’t learn by this storyboarded computer medium, but there are many things that we can.”

and one persistent caution,

“What we have failed to do in the 40 years I’ve been working in this field is to really look at our education goals.”

Moving electrons instead of people is a powerful education and learning tool, but it has its limitations, too. Here’s an excerpt from her presentation;


Geekfest Berlin 2016 – Liza Loop – Moving Electrons

Thanks to GeekFest Berlin’s 2016 event, we’ve created a series of videos from Liza Loop’s presentation that touch on various aspects of the topic and our organization’s history within it. We pass this information along as possible aids to include in your communications and as an introduction to our mission and current activities.

The complete presentation is available at: GeekFest’s Youtube channel.

2016 was the year we at HCLE saw an increased interest in the history of computing in learning and education (hence our acronym, HCLE). We are building a virtual museum to collect and catalog born-digital artifacts and digitized versions of physical artifacts to researchers, scholars, educators, and the general public. Incredible amounts of money are being spent on how to improve education and learning, and how best to integrate technology into the process. Very little is being spent studying the decades of similar attempts, which may be why society continues to ask the same questions and make the same mistakes.

Our museum’s story stretches back to 1975 and the founding of LO*OP Center, (Learning Options * Open Portal), a 501(c)(3) California nonprofit corporation chartered:

To improve the quality of people’s lives by integrating cultural diversity and appropriate technology into local communities through educational projects and events.

The ways that computing changed learning and education have fundamentally shifted our society and civilization. We have found no other institution with a specific focus on formal and nonformal education that is working to preserve that history. If you are aware of any, please pass along the appropriate contact information.

Computer Literacy – Then and Now

As our Founder, Liza Loop, said, people “need to know enough not to be intimidated” by computers; and “The computer is not the gatekeeper, there’s a person that’s responsible. Don’t hide behind the machine.” Computer literacy has been a public issue since computers became personal, and even a bit before that. Whether it is dealing with a Help Desk worker who is bound to following an algorithmic script, or whether it is any of us trying to filter out news stories, computer literacy has become a vital skill in today’s world. Liza describes computer literacy then and now in this excerpt from her presentation at:

Geekfest Berlin 2016 – Liza Loop – Computer Literacy

Thanks to GeekFest Berlin’s 2016 event, we’ve created a series of videos from Liza Loop’s presentation that touch on various aspects of the topic and our organization’s history within it. We pass this information along as possible aids to include in your communications and as an introduction to our mission and current activities.

The complete presentation is available at: GeekFest’s Youtube channel.

2016 was the year we at HCLE saw an increased interest in the history of computing in learning and education (hence our acronym, HCLE). We are building a virtual museum to collect and catalog born-digital artifacts and digitized versions of physical artifacts to researchers, scholars, educators, and the general public. Incredible amounts of money are being spent on how to improve education and learning, and how best to integrate technology into the process. Very little is being spent studying the decades of similar attempts, which may be why society continues to ask the same questions and make the same mistakes.

Our museum’s story stretches back to 1975 and the founding of LO*OP Center, (Learning Options * Open Portal), a 501(c)(3) California nonprofit corporation chartered:

To improve the quality of people’s lives by integrating cultural diversity and appropriate technology into local communities through educational projects and events.

The ways that computing changed learning and education have fundamentally shifted our society and civilization. We have found no other institution with a specific focus on formal and nonformal education that is working to preserve that history. If you are aware of any, please pass along the appropriate contact information.