Tag Archives: wiki

HCLE Winter 2017 Progress Report

Welcome to the winter quarter of 2017 HCLE report. We share many of these news items via our outlets (wiki, blog, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn) and collect them here for your and our convenience.

Our staff of 1.4 FTEs, volunteers and outside collaborators reached the following milestones in the winter (January through March) of 2017.

 

Fundraising

  • A news release was prepared for Liza Loop’s GeekFest Berlin 2016 presentation

Catalog

  • A presentation tool is being developed to aid image management

Collection

  • Staff was added to the task of organizing the Collection

Outreach

  • Liza Loop attended the Personal Digital Archiving 2017 conference

Operations

  • A Salesforce account was established and is being customized to HCLE’s needs

Exhibits

  • Lobby/Proof-of-Concept work continues

 

 

Please pass our news along, especially if you know someone else who will want to contribute money, know-how, artifacts, stories, or connections. Even by glancing at what we’ve done, you’re helping make HCLE happen as you pass along the story. Thank you.

  • Fundraising

A draft news release was prepared to inform followers and potential funders about a series of videos excerpted from Liza Loop’s presentation at GeekFest Berlin 2016. The organizers provided a high-resolution version of the video from which we extracted five excerpts that highlight different aspects of HCLE and its mission. (See the list in the Outreach section below.)

Thanks to some preliminary work by an outside contractor, HCLE now has a Salesforce account and database. We are training ourselves in its use, and using the news release as a training opportunity.

  • Collection

Phil Tymon is assisting Liza Loop in the organizing and digitizing of the Collection.

  • Catalog

Anna Narbutovskih is creating a presentation tool (the Interim Collections Site) that will allow images in the Catalog to be readily displayed as a gallery for quicker review and comparison. The intent is to make it easier to check for duplications, and to verify proper import from the official repository, temporary storage locations, and the Catalog.

Stan Crump is modifying the Catalog Maintenance System to repurpose one of the unused fields.

Phil Tymon is assisting Liza Loop in the cataloging of the Collection.

  • People/Volunteers

Our current team of volunteers and consultants continue to help with specific issues with the Catalog Maintenance System and miscellaneous system administration tasks.

We are pleased to introduce new volunteers and enthusiasts that have experience in the history of computing in learning and education: Chuck Morrissey, Marie Hicks.

VolunteerMatch.org was used to find several candidate Salesforce volunteers.

  • Outreach

GeekFest Berlin 2016 made Liza Loop’s video available online and also provided a copy so we may create more succinct excerpts. The editing has begun on five topics.

Liza Loop finished the quarter by attending the Personal Digital Archiving 2017 conference held by Stanford University Libraries from March 29-31, 2017.

Blog posts published:

Social Media Traffic Report

      • Twitter – Facebook ‘Following’ lists reconciled
1/1/2014 12/30/2015 12/31/2016 4/1/2017
Facebook 59 104 171 175
Twitter 67 408 493 490
WordPress 18 49 50 50
Wikispaces 12 62 69 70
  • Wiki

The HCLE wiki continues to act as a communications center and as a digital loading dock.

Chuck Morrissey joined the wiki.

  • Exhibits

Anna Narbutovskih is creating a Proof of Concept site (aka Collections Viewer). A few select artifacts will be presented and displayed so visitors, followers, and prospective funders can better understand our goal, a virtual museum of the History of Computing in Learning and Education.

Andy Molnar volunteered to highlight publications, promote existing interviews, conduct a Future Flashback interview, and work on exhibits of NSF’s impact and the military origins of technology in education.

  • Operations

The year was kicked off with a review of the program plan. As usual, the greatest variables that affect the timeline are funding and staffing.

A draft Design Document was produced to better communicate the goals, operations, restrictions, and experiences expected from the virtual museum. The primary audience is anyone involved in developing the software and web sites.

A trial contractor relationship ended with the positive consequence of establishing a Salesforce account for HCLE that is populated with our CiviCRM data. The account is being customized for our needs. The database is being adjusted to reflect the differences between Salesforce and our previous database, CiviCRM. We are training ourselves in its use, and using the news release as a training opportunity.

  • admin

HCLE’s complete collection of documents on GoogleDocs was ported to the HCLE Hostgator account as a backup.

Profile of an HCLE Pioneer – Ted Kahn

Ted Kahn’s work starts back with the names familiar to EdTech historians: Vivarium, Smalltalk, Bob Albrecht, Atari, and Xerox PARC.

Ted was fortunate to be a student in one of the first programming classes, something that was enabled by Bob Albrecht. Soon after, he was involved in research and development of Smalltalk for educational simulation and game design systems (ala the Vivarium Program), and worked at Atari developing innovative computers and products for lifelong learning. He also did research at Xerox PARC developing and marketing multimedia for education and training systems at a time when multimedia was new.

Education and training isn’t confined to the classroom. Ted Kahn developed educational multimedia products with the National Geographic Society (three products won national awards), an educational technology policy study for the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, and a training system for a Fortune 500 pharmaceuticals firm.

Ted’s work continues in an organic fashion. He’s also been involved in the design of PicoNet, a telecommunications network as well as one of the first home-school computer networks. Currently, he and his wife, Frona, have founded and operate DesignWorlds.com where they help students make better decisions about colleges and careers. There’s always more work to be done.

HCLE Pioneers are frequently known for more than one contribution. In the continual drive to improve education, learning, and training there are always opportunities. One accomplishment leads to another. The organic nature of the evolution of the way we teach and learn means paths inevitably cross, which is why we are developing a virtual museum for the history of computing in learning and education. Each person leads to another. We’re connecting those links on our wiki.

Additional information is available on our wiki.
Several of his videos have also been added to our HCLE Pioneers playlist on YouTube.

Profile of an HCLE Pioneer – Alan Kay

Alan Kay’s accomplishments created the foundations for so many of today’s tech advances that advocates of his work have dedicated a wiki to him, yet the foundations are so fundamental that the billions of people benefiting from his contributions probably aren’t aware of his influence. HCLE’s focus is on the history of computing in learning and education which is why we are collecting information about his work with the Vivarium Program (See our post about Ann Marion for another perspective), Smalltalk, and Dynabook.

Vivarium

The Vivarium Program created an innovative learning environment that was one of the earliest attempts to shift the school environment from a teacher educating passive students from a set curriculum, to students actively learning in ways that they inspired which were facilitated by teachers. Instead of reading about biology, students created simulations of biological systems that they could modify to better understand cause and effect as well as interconnectivity. It was the precursor to the personalized learning that is becoming more familiar

Smalltalk

While there were programming languages available for the Vivarium Program, Alan Kay saw a need for a different architecture. Some students may prefer text-based programming languages, but he saw the need for a language based on objects. Our world is built from objects, and programming based on objects allowed the computer to operate on things that had a variety of characteristics. The result was Smalltalk. The concept gained wider acceptance after the user community shifted the definition slightly, and modern object-oriented programming languages were born. Though it strayed from his original intent, object-oriented programming languages have become the basis of much of today’s computing.

Dynabook Learning Today

A natural extension of Alan Kay’s desire to transform learning was the Dynabook, a device that didn’t exist at the time. He saw a need for a thin and portable computer that would fit in a child’s hands and that the child could operate. Such a device would work well in the environment that was part of the Vivarium Program, as well as outside the school. A logical choice for the programming was Smalltalk. The three could be combined to dramatically expand learning opportunities, especially with advances such as the PLATO network and other innovations he worked on at Xerox PARC.

Learning Today

The Dynabook wasn’t created, Smalltalk became something different, and the Vivarium Program was eventually cancelled by Apple; but their influences have come together for children who learn while pursuing their curiosity when they use and play with tablet computers. A child learning to read at their own pace from an app downloaded to an iPad is remarkably similar to at least some of Alan Kay’s original intentions. Maybe the rest of the vision merely requires a bit more patience.

 

Additional information and pertinent links are available on our wiki.
Several of his videos have also been added to our HCLE Pioneers playlist on YouTube.

Profile of an HCLE Pioneer – Ann Marion

Ann Marion has long been a champion of novel solutions in educational technology to accomplish the integration of science and technology subject matter into the curriculum.

Ann Marion is primarily known for her work on the Vivarium Project, but her work extends before and after those ten years. Prior to working at Apple on Vivarium, she was at HP, Atari, and MIT. After Vivarium she worked with Houghton Mifflin on multi-media projects and also at her own business Marion Works.

Her primary role at the Vivarium Project was as Program Director, the person responsible for budgets and organization of the 10-12 person team: Alan Kay, Kim Rose, Lori Weiss, Programmers: Scott Wallace, Ted Kaehler, Larry Yaeger, Jay Fenton, Hardware: Tom Ferrara, School Coordinaor: Dave Mintz.

Ann’s work typifies the progression through the introduction of computers: from print publishing to personal computers to online; and from passive education to interactive.

She collected a series of videos for her YouTube playlist which we have included on our wiki and on our YouTube channel under the HCLE Pioneers playlist. We plan to do the same for other HCLE Pioneers.

The following videos are from the Vivarium Project, an open school developed and exercised in Los Angeles in 1977. The thesis was that school should not be a teaching shop but an exploration directed by the children based on what they want to learn. Their curiosity provides their incentives, and they value the knowledge more highly because it has already delivered a benefit. The teacher becomes a facilitator rather than lecturing to everyone at once. Basic tenets were:

  1. the room should decentralized and flexible
  2. children are free to explore
  3. the room is rich in learning resources
  4. teachers work with small groups or just an individual.

Vivarium -Learning About Learning http://youtu.be/eOxH8oUo-AA

Vivarium – Example Class http://youtu.be/PlR1cg1pF8I

Vivarium – Example Learning Material https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebdVQr-lVgo
Vivarium’s work has continued, but it has been subsumed into many other things, just like many of the innovations like the mouse, graphical interfaces, and interactive media.

Additional information is available on our wiki.
Additional videos are available on our YouTube channel.

HCLE Autumn 2016 Progress Report

Welcome to the autumn quarter of 2016 HCLE report. We share many of these news items via our outlets (wiki, blog, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn) and collect them here for your and our convenience.

Our staff of 1.4 FTEs, volunteers and outside collaborators reached the following milestones in the winter (October through December) of 2016.

 

Catalog

  • Our cataloging process was documented to aid training and make comparisons with outside suppliers.

Collaboration

  • An initial and encouraging contact was made with Greta Nagel from the Museum of Teaching and Learning.

Outreach

  • Liza Loop addressed Jerry Herberg’s class on “Computing in the 21st Century Classroom”

Operations

  • We solicited and are reviewing bids for outside suppliers to produce our Proof of Concept.

Please pass our news along, especially if you know someone else who will want to contribute money, know-how, artifacts, stories, or connections. Even by glancing at what we’ve done, you’re helping make HCLE happen as you pass along the story. Thank you.


  • Fundraising

Following our fundraising strategy defined previously, we are preparing news releases based on the Make versus Buy process and Liza Loop’s Geekfest presentation. The releases will be used as introductions and reminders to possible funders, both individuals and organizations.

We were encouraged by the response to our submission to “A Great Tweet Will Win $10,000 Each for 10 Small Nonprofits”, an innovative funding instrument exercised by DeluxeCare. HCLE was not in their fields of study for 2016, but they encouraged us to look for 2017’s topics.

 

  • Collection

Liza Loop added items by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, key contributors to online conferencing starting in the 1960s.

 

  • Catalog

Our trial of various suppliers of catalog maintenance systems continues. To aid in making comparisons we documented our current cataloging process using our proprietary Catalog Maintenance System. The documentation will aid training of volunteers and staff, and provide a benchmark against other suppliers.

The Collector Systems trial has been delayed awaiting changes in their software, a migration from our original import to a more proper variation of their software, and a review of the crosswalk linking pertinent field names from the HCLE list to the Collector Systems list. In the meantime, we will continue to use our Catalog Maintenance System.

The criteria list for ranking suppliers is being reviewed in case we decide to not use Collector Systems.

In conjunction with our Proof of Concept effort, two contractors, Logikbar and Webhelper, are also tasked with estimating the effort required to provide an alternative cataloging system, whether custom-built or using something like Salesforce or Adobe Catalyst.

 

  • People/Volunteers

Our current team of volunteers and consultants continue to help with specific issues with the Catalog Maintenance System and miscellaneous system administration tasks.

We are pleased to introduce new volunteers and enthusiasts that have experience in the history of computing in learning and education.

Previously, we mentioned Chuck House and Jenny Better House. Chuck House has released a book on interviewing, which is being reviewed.

Andy Molnar may aid in promoting existing interviews, conducting a Future Flashback interview, and contributing to possible exhibits such as NSF impact and military origins of educational technology.

Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, as well as Marie Hicks are becoming familiar with our efforts.

 

  • Outreach

Liza Loop addressed Jerry Herberg’s class on “Computing in the 21st Century Classroom. The slides are available on our blog, Are my old lessons still needed in new classrooms?

In support of our planned virtual reality exhibits, Liza Loop attended VR for Good in Esalen from October 9-14.

GeekFest Berlin 2016 made Liza Loop’s video available online and also provided a copy so we may create more succinct excerpts. The editing has begun on five topics.

  • LO*OP Center’s history
  • How LO*OP recevied Apple 1 #1
  • Distance Learning
  • Computer Literacy
  • Moving Electrons versus Moving People

We proposed a workshop for the 2017 Society of California Archivists Annual General Meeting (AGM) April 27-29 in Pasadena. The workshop will convey our experience with our Catalog Maintenance System Make Versus Buy process, and will help others modify HCLE’s process to meet their criteria and situation.

We are considering attending various events in 2017. Final decisions have not been made pending responses to various presentation proposals and funding constraints. The following are the candidates as of the end of December 2016.

 

blog posts published

 

Social Media Traffic Report

1/1/2014 12/29/2014 12/30/2015 12/31/2016
Facebook 59 91 104 171
Twitter 67 271 408 493
WordPress 18 42 49 50
Wikispaces 12 41 62 69

 

  • Wiki

The HCLE wiki continues to act as a communications center and as a digital loading dock.

We conducted a link check to eliminate or correct broken links. The exercise emphasized the value of PURLs, Permanent URLs, and regular maintenance.

 

  • Collaborations

An initial and encouraging contact was made with Greta Nagel from the Museum of Teaching and Learning. This is important and fortuitous because there are very few museums or institutions devoted to preserving the history of teaching and learning. Mutually supportive initiatives are being discussed.

Chuck House is a long term Computer History Museum trustee and founder and executive director of InnovaScapes Institute. Mutually beneficial activities are being discussed.

Kevin Savetz and Liza Loop are collecting materials from the 1999 Vintage Computer Festival.

 

  • Exhibits

The previously mentioned virtual reality project has been postponed for reasons outside HCLE control.

The oral history of David Minger, an education administrator, was captured to document some of the systemic implications of computing and automation in managing students, class, registration, and funding.

 

  • Operations

We solicited and are reviewing bids from outside suppliers to produce our Proof of Concept. A dedicated and well-funded effort may produce a demonstration site that can be used for communicating our vision and to engage collaborators, enthusiasts, and funders. At the close of the quarter, Logikbar and Webhelper were producing time and cost estimates that will be reviewed in January of 2017. The scope of work will include database improvements for our catalog maintenance system, the Proof of Concept (aka our Museum Lobby), and video editing of our 2016 presentations.

 

  • LO*OP Center

    • HCLE supported the LO*OP Center Annual meeting in December.

Our Inaugural EdTech Oral History Workshop

A first workshop

On June 7th we held our inaugural Oral History Workshop – How Education Made Computers Personal at Leuphana University (Luneberg, Germany) and online. The workshop was a collaboration between HCLE’s parent organization, LO*OP Center, and Leuphana University to capture more of that history and make it available to modern researchers.

LLOHW image from Twitter

The history of how computing changed education and learning, and how learning and education changed computing is more than the story of hardware introductions and institutional initiatives. As one of the speakers, Lee Felsenstein, observed;

“the 60s – 70s resonated with the counterculture of a search for personal control, even through technology.”

And, as the motto of the People’s Computer Company stated;

“Computers are mostly used against people instead of for people, used to control people instead of to free them. Time to change all that…”

 

Our first workshop expanded on that theme with the influence of Montessori logic, applied conviviality, designs for teaching about and through computers, and pedagogy.

The four main presentations were:

  • Jeremias Herberg: IT Became Personal – Montessori Logics in 1970s Computer Hobby Groups
  • Lee Felsenstein: The Tom Swift Terminal and Applied Conviviality
  • Liza Loop: Distance, Synchronicity, Control: Exploring Designs for Teaching About and Through Computers
  • Howard Rheingold: Counterculture + Social Media = Edupunk Pedagogy

 

The workshop was well attended, considering that it was as much a test as it was a research opportunity. A few dozen people attended at Leuphana and online. Scheduling had to accommodate a 9 hour difference in time zones. It was impressive to see how many people were willing to stay up late or get up early to participate. As a reflection on the history of computing, such an event would have been prohibitively expensive and unpredictable decades ago. Now, the system we used was new, familiar to many even with a mix of languages, and was effectively a test for Leuphana. It worked more than well enough for us.

For about 5 hours, the attendees listened and participated in a discussion of the objective and subjective aspects of early EdTech. Dates and data are more readily researched; but oral history captures the subjective aspects like the motivations and circumstances that led to decisions, actions, and also abandoned ideas. Anecdotes may conflict, but they also reveal the various perspectives that existed and influenced those times and these times. Even though Jeremias didn’t work in the ’60s and ’70s, he was able to put the workshop in perspective thanks to his research. Lee, Liza, and Howard were active in that era; their presentations provided insights and inspired questions as well as possible further investigations by researchers.

Education made computers personal

Much of the early EdTech work which was dedicated to applying computers and computing to education and learning was done by people whose work challenged conventional institutions: innovators, educators, visionaries, and revolutionaries. Some of this work was recorded. Much of it was never written down in the rush to turn new ideas into programs, lessons and new ways of teaching or learning. The workshop helped to refresh our memories, to ensure  that the information is preserved, to archive it and to make it available to researchers.

The nature of the collaboration between Liza and Jeremias is a good example of creating a bridge between generations. Liza Loop is the founder of LO*OP Center and the co-creator of the event. In the early days of personal computing, she brought the first Apple 1 into schools, opened a public access meeting place for computing, and helped write the user’s manuals for the Atari 400 and 800 computers. She lived the history, and knows others who also lived it. Jeremias Herberg is a post-doctoral fellow with the Complexity or Control Project at Leuphana University and works on how computers influenced learning. A sociologist, he is studying the history of science and technology, and finding others who are active in this field. These young scholars realize that the pioneers from a pivotal era are reaching the end of their lives and opportunities to meet them and capture their stories are becoming increasingly rare. This inaugural oral history workshop was yet another step in passing along history. There are many more stories to tell, record and study.

Lee was involved in the creation of several countercultural movements and in computers, including the Free Speech Movement where he created the famous “Community Memory”. In 1975, Lee co-founded the Homebrew Computer Club, where many early Silicon Valley entrepreneurs, including Apple inventor, Steve Wozniak, used to gather to swap stories and expertise. As an engineer, Lee created the Sol-20, and early desk-top computer and the Osborne 1, one of the first portable computers. Choosing from a breadth of influences, he chose to talk about the Tom Swift Terminal, a pre-PC device that would have enabled personal access to remote computers and could also be expanded into a quite capable stand-alone machine. As for how “Education Made Computers Personal”, he noted that the 60s – 70s resonated with the counterculture of a search for personal control, even through technology.

Howard was one of the first writers to point out the educational values of digital networks. He was involved in the WELL, a “computer conferencing” system and, drawing from that experience, he coined the term “virtual community”. As he pointed out, many of the issues encountered in those early days still remain after decades of development, partly because;

“Technologies, including EdTech, are changing faster than society.”

Computers and computing have changed society and the way we teach and learn; but, fundamentally, many organizations and institutions continue to struggle to adapt.

Because the details of the presentations are too much to relay here we are working at making the presentations and the video available. (You can follow some of the proceedings via #LLOHW on Twitter.) When they are available we’ll post them this blog and publish announcements on our LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter pages.

One workshop is not enough. There is an urgency to record as many of these oral histories as possible. The memories are perishable. The artifacts and documentation are at risk of being dismissed or overlooked by subsequent generations unless they are combined with contemporary, interpretive commentary. We are endeavoring to record those histories through the workshop and also through a crowd campaign so many more voices can be heard. Howard, Liza, and Lee are already well known through their writing as are many other EdTech pioneers. However, equally useful stories from elementary school teachers, hobbyists, and self-taught students, have yet to be captured. If you have a story, pass it along. If you want to read those stories, visit the HCLE wiki (our digital loading dock while we build our virtual museum). Keep next year’s workshop in mind and let us know if you would like to be kept abreast of our plans. There are more stories to tell and hear.

Thanks to everyone who made it happen.

 

Gaps In EdTech History

There are gaps in history, eras when important things happened but no one properly preserved the records. If you study history, you probably have your favorite examples of mysteries that will only be resolved with a time machine – or a very lucky find. The history of education is facing such a blank space.

Within the last decade, conversations about #EdTech have been accelerating and expanding. More material is being produced than anyone can assimilate. The born-digital portion of the discourse is impressive. Even the research, analyses, and insights being developed today aren’t always archived correctly; but academic studies are more likely to be preserved by their institutions, unofficial but effective efforts like Internet Archive save many of the web sites, and popular press collections by journalists, bloggers, and commenters are more likely to be preserved (at least temporarily) by whoever hosts them. Today, born-digital means easily transferable, and possibly preserved.

The decades before the Internet became a common (and largely chaotic) depository for all of human information weren’t so fortunate. It was an era that started with discussions about students possibly being interested in getting jobs that would develop computers, up through the period when computers dominated classrooms but were largely constrained within the walls of the schools. It was an era that had governmental and institutional initiatives; but it was dominated by pioneering teachers, administrators, and students who didn’t wait for official approval to expand what, why, how, when, and where they taught and learned. Compared to today, there was far less material produced, which means each artifact is that much more valuable. We at HCLE (the History of Computing in Learning and Education Virtual Museum) are focused on that era and those people, and are surprised that we can find few others doing similar work.

The teachers, administrators, parents, and students then asked the same questions being asked today. How much screen time is appropriate? What lessons are best taught by the teacher lecturing versus the student exploring software? Does the cost of technology create a digital divide based on wealth? EdTech’s historical gap is filled with insights and answers that apply to questions today.

EdTech’s blank space exists because the pioneers who didn’t wait for approval also didn’t necessarily document their intent or process. Sometimes it was unintentional, because the pioneers were so busy pioneering that they postponed documenting their progress. Sometimes that was intentional, because official records could trigger official demands to cease and desist. 

The documents that were produced were usually printed on non-archival paper. They are perishing through age and neglect. The hardware is becoming more fragile, and possibly impossible to repair because of the lack of replacement parts. The software is being lost because it was stored on a variety of media, some of which are degrading quickly, some of which are orphaned because the hardware readers are no longer available, some of which are orphaned because the operating systems no longer operate, and some of which might work but no one remembers how to run the programs. The most valuable and ultimately most perishable information are the stories stored in people’s memories; the true source of the research, analysis, insights, and wisdom that may or may not have been documented elsewhere.

Liza's van with computer monitors, wheel barrow of monitors and Stephie dog
News “Managing the not-so-virtual assets of HCLE” – by Liza Loop

It is a sad, yet unavoidable, reality that the pioneers are reaching the end of their lives. The era we study began in the mid-fifties, sixty years ago. As people age, memories fade, and are ultimately buried. After they’re gone, their descendants are tasked with sorting through estates that may include boxes of old notebooks, personal letters, newsletters, photos, home movies, computers, programs – a massive amount of work given to someone in mourning who understandably wants to get past a difficult part of their life. Artifacts are easily tossed away. Our awareness of the urgency is why we are preserving our document collection, recording stories of the pioneers, and reformatting born-digital information that was almost orphaned. (Thanks to the volunteers and collaborating institutions that are making it possible.)

The loss of artifacts and first hand accounts is not unique to our museum. Any museum that is working with the history of a topic from the fifties through the nineties experiences the same urgency.

Change in society is accelerating, but today’s efforts are more likely to be born-digital in an era when the awareness of preserving the information is being discussed. The efforts of decades ago didn’t benefit from the preservation efforts; yet, those efforts were the enablers of today’s acceleration.

Change requires adaptation and learning. A hundred years ago there was change; but a person could learn skills that would be useful for decades. Very little retraining was required. It was the era of lifelong careers. If you needed or wanted to learn something new, you found a class and learned from the teacher. Today, the skills you learned to operate your computer, your phone, your car, and your appliances may become outdated with the next overnight update. If you need or want to learn how to use the new version, you expect to teach yourself, possibly by communicating with peers. We’ve become less reliant on authority figures and more reliant on ourselves and our community, online or offline.

Understanding how we adapt to change is becoming more important because change is accelerating and adaption becoming more necessary. And yet, the history of our adaptations to one of our most important changes is being lost.

Civilization was enabled by education. What, why, how, when, and where is largely different from a hundred years ago, and even fifty years ago. Our civilization is entering a new era that is dramatically different from the previous era. Between the two was a transitional era, an enabling time that is easy to ignore, overlook, and even throw away. We are working to defend against the growth of that blank space in our history, to save enough of the artifacts and first-hand accounts to tie the eras together, to document a time when change accelerated – a useful study considering how understanding change will be necessary for understanding our civilization. If you’re doing the same, great! Thanks for doing what you do, and thanks to everyone who is helping.